A genus that counts numerous varieties of shrubs, erect or climbing, originating in all the countries that are in the northern hemisphere; from these varieties over the centuries have derived dozens of varieties, both hybrids and cultivars, and every year are produced of new ones, with particularly abundant blooms, large flowers or bright colors.
They develop erect stems, ramified in a disorderly way, woody at the base, which usually carry numerous thorns; the leaves are of a dark green colour, pinnate, with small oval, pointed leaves. In May-June, they produce numerous medium-sized flowers, single, double or extra-double, often intensely perfumed, so much so that they are used in the perfume industry.
Usually, the European and North American botanical roses bloom only once in the arc of the year, whilst some Asiatic species are re-blooming till the winter: the hybrids and the horticultural varieties obtained from various crossings between the Asiatic species and other species are usually re-blooming, and produce flowers starting from April till the winter cold.
Roses are certainly among the most appreciated flowers in gardens and there are numerous associations of enthusiasts, the beauty of the flowers and the ease of cultivation are definitely the characteristics that make roses so attractive, even for beginners.
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Most species and varieties of roses need sunny or semi-shady locations with at least 4-6 hours of direct sunlight per day; particularly shady conditions cause poor blooms. However, there are varieties that particularly like shade. The roses on the back of the head do not fear the cold, more easily they fear the great summer heat, which often causes a short period of vegetative rest, without blooms.
- The life of the flowers can be “extended”, so to speak, thanks to the use of drying techniques, which allow the conservation of plants and flowers for a long period of time. The beauty …
- The Aphelandra squarrosa or Afelandra is an evergreen shrub native to Central and South America, which in nature reaches 2-3 m in height, and in container is maintained in a size close to that of the plant.
- A noble flower, cultivated for centuries in the whole Mediterranean area and in Asia, now present in gardens and parks all over the world, the rose is one of the favourite shrubs of gardeners.
- Roses are shrubs cultivated for centuries in all the gardens of the world; in Europe they have undergone decades of hybridization and crossbreeding, which have led to the production of many varieties, with special flowers, …
the plants just planted, in autumn or at the end of winter, need to be watered wetting the soil deeply; during the months going from November to April, usually they are satisfied with the rains; during long periods of drought they need quite regular waterings, always waiting for the soil to dry up.
During the hottest months of the year, they are to be watered occasionally, with abundant quantities of water; the suspension of the watering in July and August may lead the plants to a period of vegetative rest, without blooms.
it is advisable to plant the new plants of roses acapella in soil in which they have not previously been planted other roses, it is generally used good universal balanced soil, mixed with little manure and good garden soil. In autumn it spreads around the plants of the mature organic fertilizer, in June it is possible to practice a fertilization based on organic fertilizer or slow release chemical fertilizer, specific for flowering plants.
The specimens grown in containers usually need to replace every 3-4 years all the soil contained in the pot.
The multiplication happens by seed, in spring; usually the varieties of modern roses are cultivated by grafting them on botanical species, therefore, in order to propagate them, maintaining the peculiar characteristics of the plants, it is necessary to practice cuttings, in late summer.
The adversity of the rose
The Rose is considered the queen of flowers, and has been cultivated since ancient times all over the world not only for ornamental purposes for the flower or berries (cinorrods) that derive from fertilization, but also for the extraction of oils and aromatic essences for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
The botanical species are about 250, whilst the cultivated ones, coming from various selections and hybridizations, are countless, seen that, every year, hundreds of new varieties are formed all over the world.
In general, ancient roses, or rather wild spontaneous roses, are strong and therefore resistant to various parasites, while cultivated or hybridized roses are very sensitive to the environment and relative adversity.
The main reason why almost all the current selections are grafted is because the rootstock or wild or rustic foot, then gives the grafted part (grown for the flower) a greater vigor and strength in general.
Adversity and care
In order to simplify the various problems that damage the roses, we can group the different causes in: environmental diseases, fungal parasites, damage from insects and animals.
Non-parasitic diseases: nutritional or environmental
In order to be able to live and bloom regularly, all roses need neutral or sub-acid soil, rich in fertilising elements, organic matter and, from a structural point of view, it must be well drained.
The lack of a suitable soil for cultivation and lacking in nutrients causes a general deterioration of the rose plant, with manifestations of poor flowering and yellowing of the leaves.
Other “environmental” causes are the lack of light, pollution, thermal stress, but also the excess of salinity in soil water or unsuitable soils, and other accidental or involuntary causes such as transplantation.
Roses may show specific foliar discolouration depending on the type of nutrient they are lacking:
-General discolouration of the plant and more pronucated leaf yellowing in the basal areas. Stunted vegetation with poor flowering with washed out flowers. Nitrogen
-Bronze-purplish colouring of the leaves with low growth and floral ramifications that curve to S Phosphorus
-Desiccation at the edge of leaves that may curve to a U the flowers have poor coloring and are small in size. Potassium
-The basal leaves turn yellow in the area of the central vein and dry up quickly with their early detachment. Magnesium
-The leaves become opaque and fold down. The leaves dry mainly at the edges and on the apex. Calcium
-Progressive yellowing from the tops to the bottom of the plant with drying of the leaves. Flowering nothing or very poor. Iron
Parasitic adversities due to fungi
One of the most frequent problems with roses is the proliferation of fungal or cryptogamic diseases, more commonly called “molds” because of the appearance of their fructifications that generally cover the attached plant.
These pathogens, if not fought in time, can destroy all flowers and plants in a short time.
They are favored by wet or rainy weather conditions, and more afflict roses with nutritional deficiencies.
– Dry stems, cancer of branches and cracks
Red-purplish depressed areas appear on the stems and branches, which then dry up with a cleft in the bark.
– Basal or collar rot
The young plants show dusk and rottenness at the collar. The plant first turns yellow and then dries quickly.
– Oidium or White Mal
White felt spots appear on the leaves, flower and tips of the branches. The flowers do not open or wither.
– Mold of leaves and buds
Grey ash moulds appear on the leaves and flowers and then rot.
Yellowish brown pustules appear on the underside of the leaves and can become dusty. Affected organs dry up
– downy mildew
Yellowish areas appear on the upper page of the leaves and white mould appears on the lower page at the leaves.
Blackish or purplish blurred spots appear on the leaves. The affected leaves dry up and fall rapidly, quickly stripping the entire plant.
Rose Acapella: Animal insects or pests that affect Roses
Roses are easily attacked by various types of insects that may have chewing or sucking mouthparts and damage occurs on the entire plant, with a particular preference for the flower because it is softer, sweeter and juicier.
– Aphids or Lice
The most fearsome category of insects is given by suckers such as aphids because in addition to the direct damage caused by the removal of sap and the transmission of viral forms, we add that of the production of unsightly honeydew with call of ants and subsequent formation of “soot”.
They cover all the young parts of the plant and lead it to rapid withering by removal of lymph.
– Thentredini and Larvae
They can be of various types: from caterpillars or larvae of green or yellow lepidopters, to adult insects such as beetles. They eat leaves, flowers or shoots.
They suck the sap like aphids, differ in being almost motionless and live protected by waxy shields of white or pinkish yellow color.
– Larvae of miners lepidoptera
These are microlepidopteran larvae that “undermine” the green area of the leaf, leaving the cuticle intact. The leaves dry up and fall.
They are sucking butterflies that sting young leaves or shoots. The affected organs present crumple with silvery colors
– Mites or red straws
They are tiny spiders that cause with their stings on the yellowing leaves that then dry up completely. They are very mobile and when they massively attack the plant they also produce small spider webs.
– Terrestrial larvae and centipedes
They belong to various orders of insects from lepidoptera to coleoptera or elateridae and damage the roots and lower parts of the plants.
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