Evonymus – Euonymus alatus – Euonymus alatus – Garden plants – Evonimo – Euonymus alatus – Shrubs

The evonym (also called fusaggine) is one of the most common shrubs in gardens: the persistent leaf species are a classic to create beautiful hedges. The deciduous ones are appreciated for their beautiful autumn fruits.

The varieties of evonyms are about 170, spread practically in all the continents; they can be shrubs, small trees, upholstered and climbing plants, both deciduous and evergreen. E.

fortunei is a small evergreen shrub with oval leaves, of green colour; there are numerous cultivars with leaves of various tonalities, even variegated; it is very much used in the flowerbeds and as border or small hedge, with compact and rather slow growth.

Euonymus europaeus has deciduous leaves, in autumn they acquire a purple-red colour; it produces small pink berries, with orange seeds, very decorative.

Euonymus japonicus has round, thick and leathery leaves, small shrub with compact and vigorous growth, there are varieties with varied leaves.

Euonymus alatus is a medium-sized shrub with deciduous leaves, very decorative in autumn. The evonimi produce in spring small flowers of greenish or purple colour, followed by small dark or pink berries.

In autumn, the shrubs are pruned, eliminating the dry or weathered branches, and the branches of the hedge shrubs are shortened by about a quarter, in order to keep them more compact.

Evonimo

Exposure

Evonimo bacche These plants can develop without problems in any position, whether sunny or shady; however, it is certainly advisable to locate them in full sun to obtain the best possible development. The Euonymus alatus does not fear the cold and can bear even the hottest summers.

Usually these shrubs are suitable in the city or coastal areas, because, being a rather rustic and resistant variety, they tolerate the pollution and the brackish air without particular problems.

They are tolerant of this too: they grow well both in the sun and in the shade. Clearly, deciduous varieties prefer a cooler position in the South and evergreen varieties a brighter and warmer position in the North (especially variegated cultivars).

  • Euonymus alatus I searched the site ” EUONIMUS AUREA “but I get another plant from the one I imagined. I’m looking for a hedge plant whose leaves are yellow – green. Maybe it’s another plant or a variety of the…
  • ardisia The berries are the only note of color of the pale cold seasons; the plants strip themselves of their dress of leaves and flowers and the only ornamental decoration is made up of their small fruit persists.

  • Corbezzolo Evergreen tree or shrub native to Ireland and countries bordering the Mediterranean, which can reach 9-10 meters high, but which most commonly remains around the size of a tree or shrub.

Description, classification and origins

The genus Euonymus (belonging to the family of the Celastraceae) includes at least 160 species spread spontaneously throughout the world, but mostly in Europe and Southeast Asia. It is difficult to make an overall description because it is a very heterogeneous genus. It includes shrubs and trees that can go from just 30 cm high to 7 meters. The leaves also vary greatly from species to species: there are opposite and alternate, oval, lanceolate and serrated.

There are also many colours: light green, dark green, yellow or pink. One aspect that makes them all interesting is the autumn production of fruits, usually very lively and with a particular shape. In the horticultural field they mainly use cultivars obtained from the Japanese evonimo: they have the advantage to be very tolerant, to grow slowly and to need of little maintenance.

L’EVONIMO IN BREVE

Nome comune

 Evonimo, fusaggine.

Famiglia e nome latino

 Celastraceae, Euonymus (Europaeus, Japonicus, alatus, fortunei); più di 160 specie

Origini

 Europe, Asia

Tipo di pianta

 Albero and watermelon.

Colore delle foglie

 Verde, giallo, rosato

Fogliame

 Caduco o persistente

Altezza

 Da 30 cm and 7 meters

Coltivazione

 flippers

Irrigazioni

 Da leggere a medie

Crescita

 lenta

Esposizione

 Sole-mezz’ombra

Terreno

 Tollerante, meglio fresco e ricco, calcareo o argilloso

Minimum temperature

 Alcune molto rustiche, altre -7°C

pH terreno

 Neutroro o subalcalino

Concimazione

 Ammendante organico

Parassiti e malattie

 Afidi, cocciniglia, oziorrinco, ragna del melo, crittogame

Propagation

 Seme, talea

Uso

 Esemplare isolato, gruppi, sipping, topiaria, vaso

Annaffiature

Evonimo There are differences of importance between the semi-presidential varieties and those in the cadastre. The first ones require fairly frequent irrigation only in the first years of planting, trying to keep the area cool, especially in hot and dry periods. Later they will become very autonomous.

On the contrary, the deciduous fusage is more delicate in this respect: in summer we will always have to monitor the soil to prevent it from drying out completely. The attention will have to be greater if we live in the South, on the coasts or if our soil is poor and does not retain much water. In this case, a good help can come from a thick mulch with a vegetated base.

The Euonymus alatus is one of the different types of evonym present in nature and also has the same needs as the other varieties. From March to October it is advisable to water regularly at least once a week, especially during periods of prolonged drought; in the winter months it is not necessary but it is useful to water sporadically the evergreen specimens.

In general, these shrubs can easily withstand drought, but they develop best if watered regularly, always waiting for the soil to be dry to avoid the possible formation of stagnant water that would be very dangerous to the health of your plants.

Land

The plants of evonym grow without problems in any type of soil, even poor and very alkaline. For an optimal development it is good to place the plant in a soil consisting of clay mixed with a part of leaf soil and a part of sand or other inconsistent material. This mix helps to promote soil drainage, facilitates root growth and provides the plant with all the nutrients it needs.

The fusaggine is tolerant as far as the substratum is concerned. It grows discreetly in a wide variety of soils as long as they are not too dry or too poor. The ideal growth will be in a neutral or sub-alkaline soil, therefore calcareous or slightly clayey, and with a good endowment of organic matter. It must also be able to keep cool at all times, especially in summer, but also have good drainage to avoid problems at the roots.

IL CALENDARIO DELL’EVONIMO

Planting

 Autumn/Spring

Cuttings

 July-August

Pruning

 April-August (evergreens), March (falls)

Fertilization

 Autumn (manure), spring (granular for green plants)

Winter protection

 From November to March

Flowering

 Spring-autumn (depending on the species)

Fruiting

 Autumn

Multiplication

Euonymus fortunei 'Harlequin' The multiplication of these arbists usually takes place by seed, in autumn, or by cutting in August-September, utilizing some portions of semi-woody branch to be planted in pot in order to increase the possibility of rooting.

Both can be multiplied by seed or by cutting. Clearly, only the last method allows to preserve the specific characteristics of the cultivars.

Sowing requires winter stratification of at least 3 months: when the first rootlet is emitted we can move to the final compost, in individual jars.

Cuttings require different periods depending on the species.

For the caducae, we proceed with agostat branches, for the evergreens, with semi-ignified branches (in July): they are placed in a very light compound, keeping always humid and with temperatures not too low, even in winter. In spring we can move them in single pots.

Climate

The climatic requirements are very different between the various types. The deciduous species, such as the E. europaeus, are very rustic and grow well throughout the north of our peninsula and elsewhere, in the hills or mountains. Instead, let’s avoid inserting it in the central-southern regions and on the coasts, as it suffers particularly from the heat.

On the contrary, evergreen species are much more tolerant of high temperatures, but not all of them are perfectly rustic (for some it is good never to go below -6 ° C). In case of uncertainty, let’s prepare a thick mulch before winter and, if we grow in pots, let’s wrap it in insulating materials.

Nome

Dimensioni e portamento

Fogliame, fiori and frutti

Clima

Usi

VARIETÁ A FOGLIA PERSISTENTE

Euonymus fortunei “Harlequin”;

Fino a 30 cm

Verde con macchie crema

Molto rustico

Coprisuolo, bordure o vaso

Euonymus fortune fortunei “Emerald Gaiety”;

Fino a 50 cm, cespuglioso

Verde acceso con margine bianco e rosa

Molto rustico

Coprisuolo, sippy bass, vaso

Euonymus japonicus ‘Pierrlolino ‘

Fino a 30 cm, cespuglioso arrotondato

Color crema with macchie verdi, foglie nuove bianche

Fino a -5°C, poco salts

Coprisuolo, sippy bass, vaso

Euonymus japonicus ‘Aureomarginatus ‘

Fino a 1.5 m

Verde acceso con margini dorati

Molto rustico tollera terreni salmastri

Siepe, grande vaso, esemplare isolato

Euonymus japonicus ‘Aureovariegata ‘

Fino a 1 m

Verde acceso variegato oro

Abbastanza rustico tollera terreni salmastri

Siepe, grande vaso, esemplare isolato

Euonymus japonicus “Verde’Verde&apos.

Fino a 3 m

Molto denso, verde brillante, fiori bianchi e frutti rosa

Molto rustico

Siepe, esemplare isolato, gruppi

Euonymus japonicus ‘Microphyllus ‘

Fino a 1 metro

Verde medio, foglie piccole

Molto rustico

Siepe, esemplare isolato, gruppi

Eturkestanicus

Up to 1.20 m

Dark green, red flowers and fruits

Very rustic

Hedge, isolated specimen, groups

VARIETÁ A FOGLIA CADUCA

Euonymus europaeus

Up to 3 meters

First green, then yellow and finally red.

Pink-orange bishop’s hat-shaped fruits

Very rustic

Group, isolated, hedge

Euonymus europaeus ‘Red Cascade’

Up to 3 meters

First green, then deep red. Red fruits

Very rustic

Group, isolated, hedge

Euonymus alatus

Up to 2 meters

(1 meter the “Compactus”)

First green, then purple and orange. Red fruits. “Fire ball” with more intense colors

Very rustic, afraid of the heat

Group, isolated, hedge

When to transplant the evonym?

Euonymus japonicus The best time for planting shrubs and trees is always autumn; we can buy cheaper bare-root specimens, which will have the whole cold season to free themselves in their new location. When the good weather arrives, the vegetative recovery will certainly be earlier and more vigorous.

We prefer to work from March onwards only if our evonym is not particularly rustic and we live in regions where it frequently freezes. In this case we opt for plants with soil clods.

How to plant the evonym?

Let’s dig a hole at least 50 cm wide and deep. On the bottom we create a draining layer with gravel or volcanic lapillus. In any case, but especially if the soil is too poor, let’s mix it with plenty of seasoned manure and, if available, a little clayey field soil. Let’s cover and compact well; let’s irrigate abundantly.

It is very important to leave enough space for the plant to grow: an isolated specimen requires at least 2 metres free in each direction. If we want to create a hedge we leave between one hole and another from 80 to 150 cm depending on the final size that will reach the specific cultivar.

Vase composition

evonimo europeo Small cultivars can also be grown in containers as isolated specimens or to create green barriers on terraces or paved areas. We choose pots at least 40 cm deep and wide; on the bottom we create a draining layer with expanded clay. The ideal compound is obtained by mixing in equal parts field earth, universal soil and coarse sand.

Fertilization

The supply of nutrients is not strictly necessary, but an enrichment of the area is always useful: it allows to keep the soil vital and aerated. The advice is therefore to spread a good dose of manure in autumn floured at the foot of the plant.

Evonymous pruning

euvonimo alato Formation pruning is not recommended for deciduous varieties: let’s always place them where they can grow freely and take their natural shape. If we want the lower part to be filled, we make drastic cuts in the first few years. It is also useful to regularly list the lateral branches in order to obtain a thick foliage. In addition, it is advisable to prune every 5 years, removing about 1/3 of the oldest branches and trying to open the center.

Evergreens, having the right space, can also be cultivated in free form. However, they can be used to create hedges and in topiary art. We generally intervene in April and August, but every period is right to keep the form.

To quickly achieve a full appearance it is important to cut immediately after implantation and be very diligent.

Also in this case, every 5 years a renewal pruning as described above will be carried out.

Evonymus – Euonymus alatus: Parasites and diseases

evonimo alatus Most species of evonym tend to be heavily affected by parasites, so it is good to be very careful and intervene as soon as you notice the first symptoms. The greatest enemy of the evonymes is the cochineal, which causes even very serious damage, these plants can be affected even by thrips, larvae miners, mites and aphids.

In general, caducous species are more resistant than persistent leaf species. They can be affected by parasites (such as aphids), but rarely perish. We have to fear only the “spider of the apple tree”, a butterfly whose larvae eat the leaves until the tree is completely bared. We run to the shelters distributing Bacillus Thuringiensis.

Persistent evonymes are also affected by cochineal, otiorrincal and cryptogamic diseases, all to be treated with specific products.

Mimosa - Acacia dealbata

Corbezzolo - Arbutus

Photinia x fraseri

Buddleia