Commonly called plums are the varieties obtained from the hybridization of European species, from which are obtained firm and compact fruits, slightly oval, often purple or purple; from the species of Asian origin instead have been obtained plums, fruits almost spherical, softer and juicier than plums. In reality, hybrids have become so many over time that this distinction does not always make sense; in Italian, however, plums and plums are two terms that are practically equivalent.
The plant of prunus domestica is usually a small tree, not exceeding the 3 metres of height, with deciduous leaves, of dark green colour, often with the apex slightly rolled down, oval; the flowers bloom in spring, on some varieties even before the foliage arrives; the plum flowers are white, star-shaped, often in small bunches.
The flowers are followed by the fruits, which can be of various colours, starting from the acid green, up to the purple violet, passing through all the tones of the yellow, the pink and the red, as evidence of the many hybridizations which have happened during the centuries; always due to the uncertain origin of each hybrid, the ripening of the fruits takes place in different periods depending on the variety, starting from the late spring, for the most precocious varieties, up to the late varieties which ripen by the end of summer.
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Plums have been cultivated for centuries to eat their fruits, raw, cooked, in jam or dried. Plum fruits are in fact sweet and juicy, very refreshing, generally appreciated also by children.
They contain a good quantity of mineral salts, in particular potassium, and vitamins.
also contain a good amount of fiber, especially when dried, becoming very useful in cases of minor constipation.
These fruits are also used to produce traditional liqueurs, such as South Tyrolean plum brandy or Slovenian slivoviz.
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The plant of prunus domestica is rather rustic and resistant and can be cultivated without particular problems even in compact soils rich in clay, without however allowing the formation of water stagnations, as these can cause the onset of root rot. Since the plum plant can develop from different types of rootstocks easily adapts to different types of soil, which can be both basic and acidic.
For cultivation, the ideal substrate is composed of a soft soil, well supplied with organic substances.
Due to the rusticity of the plant, it can adapt to different exposures, even if, for a good harvest, it is best to position it in a sunny position, where it can receive the sun’s rays for a good part of the day. It can bear rather high temperatures and also temperatures which may reach the -15 °C, during the period of vegetative rest. On the contrary, it does not like the late frosts and the cold during the flowering, factor which can seriously compromise the harvest.
In case of cultivation in areas subject to late frosts, it is good to choose plants which do not belong to early varieties.
Rootstocks and planting
Plums can be obtained through the use of different types of rootstocks, which allow adaptation to soils with different characteristics. The most used rootstocks are, usually, the franco, which is used for its rusticity, the San Giuliano, the Mirabolano and the Brompton. Depending on the rootstock, the plant will assume a different shape and shape, influencing the type of cultivation. Grafting can be done in the summer, in August and is done with the technique called budding vegetant.
The plants thus obtained are planted already in the following autumn period.
The plants to be used as rootstocks must be chosen from specimens at least two years old.
Plum, another name with which the plant of prunus domestica is known, can be cured on the basis of different forms of cultivation ranging from the palmette, where the plants are placed on the wall with rows placed about 5 meters from each other to the breeding at ipsilon, where the plants are placed at a shorter distance from each other, about a meter and a half, compared to the four of the palmette arrangement.
Plum – Prunus domestica: Plum tree
To obtain a good harvest it is essential to remember to respect the needs of the plant, both in terms of exposure and water supply. For this last aspect it is good to know that young plants need regular watering, remembering to avoid water stagnation that can be dangerous for the health and growth of the plant.
It is also important to provide regular fertilisation that provides the plants with all the necessary nutrients; organic or nitrogen-based fertilisers can be used.
Another operation to be carried out to maintain the health of your plants is pruning, which allows you to keep the plant in the desired shape, it is good to remember to avoid intervening with too heavy cuts, to avoid that the plant suffers too much.
At the end of the winter, the damaged or dry branches should be removed and from the fifth year of growth, when the plant begins to show the first fruits, pruning should be aimed at a good production of fruits, pruning the branches that make the foliage too thick and dense.
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- Plums represent a particularly ancient fruit, which can also boast a wide spread in the wild,
visit : plum
- Good morning. A few days ago I planted a plum tree in my sunny garden. I should like to thank you for your kind words.
visita : albero prugne