The most used rootstock at present is the Quince.
The Quince is preferred because it gives a reduced development to the plant and also leads to an early and abundant fruiting, producing fruits of excellent quality.
It is afraid of calcareous and dry soils with consequent yellowing of the leaves and also presents disaffinities with some varieties well known as “WILLIAM ” e “KAISER “.
Other popular rootstocks are the “Franco” and the “Selvatico”.
Franco’s plants are obtained from the seed of a cultivated pear tree, while Selvatico is a plant born spontaneously.
Both these subjects, among other things very similar, make the plant very vigorous, highly developed and longer lasting, also have a very solid and deep root system, so they resist well even in case of long periods of drought.
They do not have any disaffinity with any variety of pear but come into production late,
(about four to six years), producing fruits of slightly lower quality compared to those obtained from plants grafted on Quince.
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As with many other plants, fertilization with mature manure or other d&apos fertilizers is recommended for the pear, if possible every year;organic origin by integrating them with complex chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements, using higher percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus in spring to favour the development of the plant both in the aerial and in the radical part and with higher percentages than the other elements during the summer until September to favour the fructification, remembering that potassium has a marked influence on the colouration of the fruits.
As far as animal parasites are concerned, there are known to be aphids and cochineals, as well as possible attacks of yellow Psylla (Psyilla piricola), a sucking insect which, by pricking on the youngest tissues of the plant, with the consequent release of honeydew, favours the development of fungi such as soot. Other fungal diseases that attack the pear tree are scabbing, which is widespread, and bad white.
It is important to point out that the pear tree can be subject to a firestroke, a disease of bacterial origin that affects the entire canopy and trunk alike, quickly drying them up.
For the formation of a pear tree it is necessary to plant a sucker, which must be immediately cut to a height that can vary from 120 to 170 cm from the ground. From here, during the first year, other branches will be emitted. At the beginning of the second year, at least three of these branches must be kept, shortening them to twenty cm, which, during the growing season, will in turn emit other branches.
At the beginning of the third branch, the latter must also be cut to twenty cm, thus providing a solid supporting structure for the canopy.
To form a spindle, a sucker will be planted and cut at a height of about 50 cm above the ground. In the first year of growth, four to five lateral branches will be obtained which, at the beginning of the second year (March is recommended), will only have to be ticked, giving the plant a pyramid shape.
Pear tree: Vertical cord
To form the vertical cord, plant a sucker and cut it at 50 cm, making sure that the cut is made just above a gemstone, so as to obtain a vertical arrow. The branches that, during the first year, will grow laterally, will have to be cut very short (about four to five cm from the stem) and also the apical part will have to be pointed out at an adequate height.
This operation should be carried out year after year, always shortening the new vegetation near the trunk, giving the plant a columnar shape.
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