The varieties differ from each other both in terms of their end use (fresh consumption, storage, industrial production for pickles) and in terms of their external appearance. One of the most important differences is the time of harvesting (in fact, there are different onions in spring, summer and autumn, winter).
Spring and summer onions are generally white and should be eaten fresh (after harvesting). They are sown in summer, transplanted in autumn and harvested the following spring. On the market there are bulbs that avoid the passage of sowing and are immediately ready for transplanting and cultivation.
Autumn winter onions must be sown on the ground in the period from the beginning of February to the end of March, while if you sow under tunnels you can anticipate the sowing by a couple of months. In the latter case, the picking will take place at the beginning of spring and the harvest in the summer months. If, on the other hand, sowing takes place later, harvesting will continue throughout the autumn period.
As for the industrial varieties (pickles), they will be sown in spring and harvested in summer. These types of onions are generally white and have a smaller size than the onions mentioned above.
- Onions are small annual herbaceous plants, of which we eat the fleshy leaves, which towards the base of the plant tend to swell, forming a bulb of various sizes.
- Onions are a vegetable that, in order to grow well and develop, needs a climate that does not present too many temperature ranges. It is resistant to cold, but needs a few hours of natural light …
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- The red onion of Tropea is a tuberous plant that is grown in some areas of Calabria, between Nicotera and Catanzaro, Cosenza and Vibo Valentia. It provides an excellent boost to the local economy and to the local economy.
Speaking of growing onions, to have a good harvest you have to consider three fundamental factors.
1) The soil must be very light, to ensure that the bulb develops evenly and without finding resistance from the soil itself in the growth phase.
2) The cultivation temperatures must be temperate. This vegetable in fact suffers when the temperature reaches 0.
3) The intake of organic matter is essential since Allium cepa requires large amounts of potassium and phosphorus.
For a good preparation of the soil, it is necessary to carry out a deep digging adding organic substance (the mature manure is very good) in the proportion of 25 30 Kg for every 10 square meters. With the help of a rake, prepare a well levelled seedbed. Sow the seed by sowing, being careful to leave the seed sparse enough. Irrigate abundantly after sowing. When the plants have reached 10-12 cm, thin out (the optimal distance is 14-16 cm on the row and 25-35 cm between the rows).
Harvesting is based on the type sown. In principle, summer onions are harvested when the leaves turn yellow. Once harvested, the onions should be placed to dry in a well-ventilated place, thus avoiding the onset of diseases and rottenness. Autumn winter onions can be left in the ground for a longer period of time. Once harvested, they should be stored in dark, well-ventilated places.
Onion cultivation – Allium cepa: Diseases and pests
The diseases that most affect the onions are cryptogamic, although there are insects that can cause the loss of the crop. The pests that most frequently affect the onion are the onion moth and the onion fly, whose larvae dig tunnels inside the bulb and also cause rottenness. Against these parasites, it is advisable to treat the soil with disinfectants beforehand.
If, however, the attack occurs when the crop is already in place is recommended the use of systemic insecticides with very short days of deficiency.
With regard to fungal diseases, it is very important to prevent the occurrence of conditions in which the pathogen can affect the natural defences of the plant. Very important in this regard is the frequency and time of irrigation. The best time for watering is in the early hours of the day, when the temperature is low and the soil has a way to dry before the night arrives.
The fungi that most affect the Allium cepa are the blight of the onion, which is manifested by the appearance of whitish or greenish spots on the leaves and the mold of the onions, where the tips of the leaves yellow and the bulb is covered with a white mold. Against these diseases, it is possible to intervene with products based on ziram and sulphur.
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- The onion, an aromatic plant native to western Asia, is used in many ways: both raw and cooked, it is a
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