Speaking of the generality of the plants, one cannot but start by describing the juvenile stage. It begins with the life of the fruit tree and ends with its entry into production. In this period the tree has an intense vegetative development, but is unable to produce fruits.
This stage, called “unproductive stage”, has a duration that is closely related to the species and in the context of this varies depending on whether it is seedling (plant obtained from seed) or of ASTONE (grafted plant).
The use of seedlings is mainly reserved for research for genetic improvement aimed at the establishment of new cultivars and new rootstocks; in practice are used rods generally 1 year old.
The duration of the youth stadium of the SEMENZALI by POMACEE particularly apple and pear trees, is more than a decade old. In this period they highlight morphological, histological and physiological aspects having a wild imprint. The juvenile stage of the seedlings of drupaceae, usually does not exceed the 5 years and does not show particular modifications.
In the case of grafted fruit trees, the unproductive period usually lasts less than 3 years, which varies, however, depending on the species and the rootstock used. Usually, the rootstock FRANCO (i.e. obtained from seed after selection), prolongs the unproductive stage with respect to rootstocks obtained by vegetative means within the framework of the latter, those of weak vigour anticipate the completion of the juvenile stage with respect to those more vigorous.
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The stage of maturity of the plants begins when the epigean portion has reached a suitable development. Vegetative activity, typical of the juvenile stage, is slowed down, while the leaves acquire more and more capacity to synthesize specific endogenous plant regulators (hormones) capable of inducing flower differentiation of neutral buds. Thus begins the first manifestation of the reproductive cycle, which gradually evolves into an increasingly regular fructification.
As far as the SEMENZALI in the transition from the juvenile stage to the stage of maturity there is a particular process called INGENTILIMENTO during which the epigean part begins to lose its wild imprint to move towards the normal ones. All this takes place gradually from the apical zone towards the base. The basal zone will maintain its youthful characteristics until the entire epigean portion above has reached the stage of maturity.
Generalities of the fruit plants: Stadium of silage
It starts with the aging of the root system and consequent reduction of absorbent activity. It causes a general weakening of vegetative activity and a slowing down of all vital functions.
The tree shows a low formation of new shoots, the renewal of fruit branches tends to run out and production decreases and becomes occasional, uneconomic and quantitatively poor. The ratio between leaf mass and new organs is altered and causes an excessive accumulation of hydrocarbon substances: the leaf mass is considerable compared to the modest amount of new organs formed.
The annual cilclo is also altered: the duration of the vegetative period is a few weeks, while the period of processing is considerably extended.
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