Apple graft holder
The most common apple rootstocks are: the franc, the paradise and the sweet.
The FRANCO is certainly the one that has the greatest diffusion, not only in Italy, precisely because of the dominant characteristic of robustness. It goes into production rather late, that is after the fourth or fifth year. The PARADISO is quite delicate and originates a root system that is often inconsistent; it is also not advisable to use it in areas where water is scarce. The DOLCINO has very often negative characteristics.
It does not develop very much the roots, originating plants of medium size, but that fructify more quickly than the franc, even if the duration of their productivity is shorter.
These last two rootstocks have been used with great success for clonal selection.
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The result obtained by the English researchers of the East Malling Centre was a cataloguing that we report below, citing the most important clones. The acronym M derives from the name of the experimental center East Malling.
M II It’s a question of a rootstock vigorous enough that it achieves considerable productivity;
M IV it is defined as weak, because it develops little vigorously. This too rootstock must be helped to grow;
M VII medium vigorous, it is a rustic rootstock that adapts well to both dry and moist soils: it has a good anchorage even in the lightest soils. It is sensitive to radical tumours (Agrobacterium tumefaciens).
M IX is a rootstock that originates dwarfed plants. It must be buried in a not hot environment and needs very fertile soil. It develops roots that sink little and therefore, in many cases, it must be helped with support.
M XI It is very vigorous and rustic, it adapts well to all soils, In loose soils it produces early.
MXII This rootstock is capable of producing vigorous plants, and can be related with a fair number of varieties;
MXII I: even if considered vigorous, this subject lends itself very well to root even in clayey soils;
M XVI is another subject considered very vigorous. The only disadvantage, if you can say so, is that compared to dwarfing subjects delays the entry into fructification;
M XXVI It is the weakest of the recommended rootstocks: it has an early fructification but needs tutoring. It prefers fertile and deep soils with good drainage.
Other clonal rootstocks are those selected by the Malling Merton laboratories (M.M .). Rootstocks marked with the acronym MM are resistant to wool aphid.
M.M . 104: considered to be very vigorous and of considerable fruit production;
M.M . 106: it is on average vigorous. It has high production with an early fruitfulness. Fears drought in soils that are too dry and permeable. In loose soils it requires tutoring;
M.M . 111: it is vigorous, resists well to drought but fears radical asphyxiation in heavy soils. Suitable for deep, loose soils.
Apple graft carrier: Apple graft carrier
As said before, the best technique to graft these plants is the splitting one, also called the scion one, as we intervene in a branch of the mother plant to graft a branch of the chosen plant, called scion and provided with buds; in the case of the apple, the buds must be a maximum of three. The scion is to be chosen among the most robust branches, but is to be chosen with a rather small diameter, seen that it must be grafted.
The part to be grafted must be cut obliquely, to facilitate insertion in the chosen branch. The apple tree graft holder should be chosen from the side branches, taking care to choose one with dimensions not exceeding 2 cm. This must be cut at a distance of about ten centimetres from the trunk, in a clean and linear way. At the centre of the surface obtained, a split is to be made, in which the scion is to be inserted.
Then you proceed to tie with care through the use of raffia or special materials, remembering to cover the cuts with mastic to avoid the onset of rottenness. The graft must be covered with plastic, checking that there is no accumulation of moisture. If the process is successful, the buds may appear within a month.
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- The apple tree is a very simple tree to graft because it requires a very ancient technique but always effective: the grafting to
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