Peperomia – Peperomia caperata – Peperomia caperata – Indoor plants – Peperomia – Peperomia caperata – Apartment

Peperomia is a genus formed by more than one thousand species of evergreen plants native to South America, cespitose or climbing; few species are native to Africa. The leaves are glossy, fairly thick and rigid, in some cases succulent. Throughout the year, sporadically all species produce very small whitish or pinkish flowers, grouped in compact, erect ears.

Among the most cultivated species we remember Peperomia caperata, with heart-shaped leaves, dark green in colour, crossed by deep wrinkles, the stems are pinkish; Peperomia rotundifolia has oval leaves, pointed, fleshy, light green in colour, with whitish variegations. They are very appreciated as ornamental plants, some have prostrate or climbing posture, therefore they are cultivated in hanging baskets; others form small heads of leaves, each one provided with a long petiole.

There are many hybrids, with leaves of particular colours.

Peperomia caperata

Cultivation and exposure of peperomia

Peperomia in vaso The peperomia is an indoor plant highly appreciated for its long stems, which can be dropped from baskets or from compositions, and for its beautiful leaves, striped or variegated, available in a wide range of colors. Its cultivation is extremely simple due to its great capacity of adaptation.

The Peperomia caperata plants are grown in luminous, or even shady, positions, but always far from the direct rays of the sun; they fear the cold, and prefer minimum temperatures over the 10°C. These plants do not like the cold air currents, for this reason, they are to be placed in a luminous position where they can enjoy the light, but which does not subject them to harmful temperature changes.

The cultivation of peperomia is very simple, especially if we use them as indoor plants or as warm temperate greenhouse plants. They are only afraid of the cold, for the rest they require little maintenance and are also little subject to attacks by pests.

  • Peperomia caperata fiore The Peperomia is a plant native to South America; in the nursery there are several species, although the most common is Peperomia caperata, which produces heart-shaped leaves, dark green in color, with a…

Origins and history of Peperomy

The genus Peperomia belongs to the family of the Piperaceae and is diffused in the tropical belts of the Americas and of Africa, especially in the pluvial forests. It is a climbing or decumbent plant, used to grow on tree trunks: it has evergreen leaves, very consistent. The shape and colors are very varied: there are round, oval, heart-shaped. The colours vary from darker green to olive green to silver; many are striped or variegated in grey, cream or lighter green.

Peperomy has become in the XX century one of the most popular small houseplants. Its strong point is undoubtedly its beautiful foliage. The flowering is not very showy, even if particular: the flowers, white and without petals, are collected in very fine ears similar to rat tails.

LA PEPEROMIA IN BREVE

Family, genus, species

 Piperaceae, gen.

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Usually, they can bear, without any problems, short periods of drought, but they do not bear the water stagnations which can cause the birth of very dangerous rottenness.

Every 15-25 days provide fertilizer for green plants, mixed with water of watering.

Watering must be frequent, but very light. We absolutely avoid stagnation at the level of the roots, because they could cause rottenness. The soil should always remain slightly moist, but never wet.

If we see the plant suffering, rather we intervene by increasing the humidity present in the environment. During the winter season it is preferable to suspend almost completely the administration, making sure only that the substrate does not dry up completely.


Multiplication

foglie peperomia caperata The Peperomia caperata is multiplied by foliar cuttings or vegetative apexes. Between April and August, cuttings are taken by cutting tops with one or two leaves attached.

To make the cuttings it is good to remember to use clean and sharp tools, making a diagonal cut.

Plant the cuttings at a depth of about 3 cm in a mixture of 50% peat and sand. The soil around the cuttings should be compacted to provide the necessary support.

Cuttings containers should be stored in a warm, sheltered and shaded place with a temperature of around 20 °C. When the first shoots appear, it is advisable to move the plant to a brighter place.

After about six weeks, after taking root, they are transplanted into individual containers.


Land

Plants of this type prefer medium rich, fairly soft and very well drained soils; a balanced soil, mixed with sand or pumice stone, can be used.

This plant requires an annual repotting to be done in the spring, until you get to use a pot of about 20 cm in diameter. At this point, every year it is better to take part of the superficial soil and replace it with fertile soil.

Peppers grow best in light substrates and composed mostly of peat or vegetable fibres, with a pH ranging from subacid to acid. We can buy already mixed products for them, choosing those suitable for acidophilic plants. To obtain even better results, however, we can create the compost ourselves: the ideal is to mix 1/3 of medium peat, 1/3 of woodland soil and 1/3 of garden soil.

Climbing varieties prefer a slightly richer substrate: in that case, let’s slightly increase the percentage of garden soil.


Pests

peperomia orba The plant is attacked by the floury cochineal and the red spider mite. To eliminate the cochineal it is possible to intervene manually with the use of a cloth with alcohol to pass on the affected parts; for the red spider mite it can be sufficient to provide water nebulisations that increase the degree of humidity.

For these parasites, it is also possible to wash the leaves with water and neutral soap, to be then rinsed carefully.

Excessive watering, or excessive water stagnation, can promote the onset of root rot.


Variety

peperomia obtusifoliaThe genus Peperomia is extremely vast as it includes more than 1000 species. Of these, only a dozen have been selected to be used as a houseplant: among these, there are many aesthetic differences, differences in posture and cultural needs.

Here are the most common and interesting:

In addition to the variety of Peperomia Caperata, other plants quite known and cultivated for their ornamental character are the Peperomia magnoliaefolia, perhaps the most common type among these plants. This plant has larger leaves than the caperata, although it is a small variety, generally not exceeding 30 cm. When it exceeds this dimension, it acquires a falling character. Cultivated at home, it blooms very hardly.

It is available in different variants, with larger leaves or with a variegated colour.

Another well-known type of plant is the Peperomia griseoargentea, which is characterized by its particular green-grey leaves with dark veins; in summer it produces small white flowers.

A rather rustic variety, easily cultivable, is the Peperomia obtusifolia; it appears with specimens of small size, usually less than 30 cm, with ramified stems with fleshy leaves of light colour on the lower part and darker on the upper one. It has a summer flowering with white flowers united in spikes.

NOME

FOGLIE

DIMENSIONI

ALTRE CARATTERISTICHE

scandens

 Heart-shaped, creamy when young, then light green with creamy edges.

Light green stems

 Up to 1.50 m. Climbing or decombating.

 From Latin America. The variegated cultivar is very widespread. Suitable for hanging baskets.

argyreia or sandersii

 Smooth, thick, oval. Silver grey with dark green stripes

 From 15 to 30 cm

 Originally from Brazil. Produces white flower spikes.

dugout

 Wavy and boiling, heart-shaped, dark green with grey and purple spots

 Up to 25 cm high, up to 15 cm wide

 From America, it blooms between April and December in an upright ear. The Little Fantasy and Variegata cultivars are very popular.

phrases or resediflora

 Small, heart-shaped leaves with green and red back.

 Up to 60 cm in length

 Small scented flowers on ears up to 60 cm long

hederaefolia or griseoargentea

 Wavy and heart-shaped, but slightly elongated, grey-green with dark green veins

 Up to 15 cm long

 From Brazil. Flowers light green

magnoliaefolia or tithymaloides

 Glossy oval, up to 15 cm long, medium to dark green.

 About 15 cm long, very ramified; climbing and decumbent

 From Santo Domingo.Green Gold variety with larger leaves bordered in the cream, when adult stained with cream and light green, red stems

obtusifolia

 Thick, round or oval, dark green with purple edges. Purple Stems

 Up to 30 cm. Very branched

 From Latin America. It blooms at the end of summer in white

Exposure

All appreciate well-lit displays, which stimulate faster growth.

In general, however, it is better to avoid direct sunshine, as it could cause sunburn. In this respect, however, the variegated cultivars are more demanding: to keep them well vital it is important to guarantee them at least 6 hours a day of very bright light and also particularly like direct light, even if only for a few hours a day (we pay particular attention, however, during the summer months).


Climate

During the vegetative period, the climate must remain temperate and rather constant: temperatures must be around 16° and 18°C. For this reason, even during the summer, it is not advisable to take them outside, where the heat will certainly be more intense.

In winter they need a period of vegetative rest: it will be better to move the specimens to a place that can be kept at 10°C, but keeping the environment very bright. A little more sensitive to the cold are the P.

scadens and the P. argyeia, for which it is better never to go below 13°C.


Ambient humidity

Peppers grow spontaneously in rainforests, so they need a very humid atmosphere, especially when temperatures are very high. Ensuring these conditions is essential because a dry environment can involve various physiopathologies, including an important foliar drop.

For this purpose we can vaporize (with demineralized water) the leaves several times a day with a spray or use humidifiers both electric and to be applied to heaters. Excellent strategies also consist in putting many plants together and in distributing subpots full of expanded clay or peat and water around them.

IL CALENDARIO DELLA PEPEROMIA

Repotting

 Spring (young), winter (adult)

Cleaning/Potting

 spring

scion

 Spring-Summer

Vegetative rest

 From November to March

Vegetative growth

 From April to September

Flowering

 Spring to winter, depending on the variety

Fertilization

Peppers only need to be fed during the period of vegetative growth, i.e.

usually from April-May to the end of September. We prefer a liquid product with a high nitrogen content, to be administered at the recommended doses once a month. It is also possible to use foliar fertilizers for green plants, to be distributed continuously, but at minimum doses.

We never exceed this because an excess of nutrients can lead to an excessively elongated growth of the stems and a consequent general weakening of the plant.


Pruning, trimming and cleaning

This type of intervention is not strictly necessary. However, it is possible to intervene for climbing and recumbent varieties, shortening or trimming the stems at the beginning of spring: we will obtain fuller and more tapered plants, as well as stimulating general renewal.

Instead, it is important to promptly remove the flower stems once they are exhausted, to avoid that the production of seeds weakens the plant.


Peperomy – Peperomy caperata: Propagation

Depending on the species, new specimens are obtained by means of leaf or stem cuttings.

The first is preferable for the argyreia pepperomia, caperata pepperomy et peperomia hederaefolia. Take one half of a leaf or one leaf with a petiole. They are placed in a mix of peat and slightly moist sand, keeping the ambient humidity around 70%, a temperature of 18°C and intense light, but not direct.

Stem cuttings are made in the same way and are preferable for magnoliaefolia, obtusifolia and scandens peppers.

Rooting usually takes place within 30-60 days. They can then be transferred to final pots, putting up to 3 of them together, to give the pot a richer appearance immediately.


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